A Construction Permit Authorizes this Homemade, 30 SQF Kids Fort on Capitol Hill. Yet the DC Government has Tasked 7 Senior Attorneys with the Job of Getting it Torn Down. We're Calling it Government Waste.


A year ago, the visitor counter on this blog had tallied fewer than 10,000 hits.  The number has mushroomed to over 34,000 since.  To quote Buffalo Springfield, iconic 60s rocker, "There's something happening here.  What it is ain't exactly clear."  Whatever has brought you to the tree house web site, thanks for stopping by and happy holidays!

WTOP reported on a recent Council of DC hearing at which DC Department of Transportation (DDOT) leaders were called to task by members of the Committee on Transportation and the Environment for failing to make adequate progress in implementing the "Vision Zeroinitiative.  The ambitious DC government scheme aims to reduce annual traffic deaths in the District to zero by 2024.  There have been at least 31 road fatalities in DC in 2018, after increases each year since 2012. 


We, the Capitol Hill tree house builders, believe that taxpayer funds allocated to DDOT should be spent to bolster public safety.  Agency leaders have lost persepctive on DDOT's core mission in tasking a team of attorneys with getting a 7' x 4' kids fort off a back alley torn down.  The DIY tree house, built in mid 2015, neither obstructs travel nor poses a threat to the public.  Back in 2016, we faced off against a SINGLE DDOT LAWYER in litigation.  By now, SEVEN DIFFERENT SENIOR CITY ATTORNEYS have been given the unenviable job of ensuring that our childrens' plywood play fort is demolished.  See Castle Paper Trail for a list of City lawyers who have written legal briefs in the case.

DDOT's over-the-top reaction to our challenge to two permitting officials' abuse of authority, in unlawfully withdrawing the "balcony" construction permit authorizing the tree house, clearly stems from Washington Post coverage of the story.  At an inconsequential hearing at the DC Court of Appeals this fall, DDOT and OAG turned up with FOUR SENIOR ATTORNEYS, and a senior Urban Forestry Admiminstration official, to contend with us, ordinary citizens representing ourselves in litigation.  The hearing wasn't the first time that DC had trained extraordinary legal firepower on our homemade fort.  In April, DC sent THREE LAWYERS AND TWO DDOT DIVISION CHIEFS to a day-long court mediation session.  Yet DDOT could have ended litigation at any point along the way, freeing up City attorneys to do real work in the public interest, simply by agreeing to let the tree house alone until our girls, ages 6 and 8, have outgrown it. 

Labor Day Weekend marked the tree house's 3rd Anniversary.  The play fort has now stood for nearly three years since DDOT and the Chairman of the DC Public Space Committee (PSC) tried to tear up the valid, closed, construction permit authorizing its presence in 20" of public air space over tree roots and mulch.  We look forward to celebrating three years with the tree house since the PSC decision, on 1/28/2019. 

Ward 6 Cub Scout, Daisy Scout and Brownie Scout leaders, can contact the Psychas-Yee family if you're interested in bringing your troupe to the tree house for a winter birdwatching session.  Click on Birding Activities for more information.

Many thanks to everybody in the 'hood who stopped by our 3RD ANNUAL JULY 4TH OPEN HOUSE, the best yet, on a scorching day.  Around 200 people of all ages turned up for cake and lemonade after the Capitol Hill Community Parade on 8th St.  More than 80 arboreal travelers, ages 3-10, collected stamps in "tree house passports" in the elm, and many fired off nerf arrows on the south arm of Archibald Walk SE The atmosphere was joyous - what a morning to remember!  See Photo Gallery for some fun pictures.

Did you hear?  The tree house case landed in the US District Court of the District of Columbia in January. The Washington Post Metro Section ran this surprising report, after finding the lawsuit via Pacer Legal Filings:


The story about the Federal lawsuit was scooped by none other than the DC Urban Turf blog.  Their report emphasizes that the tree house builders are challenging DDOT's denial of due process in construction permitting to ordinary homeowners. 



July 2015:  Ellen Psychas and Bing Yee, longtime Hill residents, ask DC permiting officials which authorizations will be required to build a tree house on their lot at Archibald Walk SE, near Eastern Market.  The proposed fort would jut 20 inches over the public-private tree box abutting their lot and a back alley from which vehicles have long been banned.  The creative design would enable them to use a wooden fence with posts laid in concrete as supports, minimizing the drilling of 18-inch lag bolts into their rare, century-old elm.  They learn that there is no reference to play forts in the DC Municipal Regulations (DCMR) or Historic Preservation Rules.  They show officials project plans and are told that DC does not permit structures with footprints of less than 50 SQF. 

August-September 2015 The tree house is built for the Yee girls, ages 3 and 5, by relatives and family friends.  Immediate neighbors are left notes telling them that a non-permitted fort will go up in their backyard elm tree.  None react.  The new structure does not extend over a paved surface and cannot be viewed from any street.  

October-November 2015: A neighbor complains to DDOT that the fort was built in a public tree, and constitutes a public nuisance (untrue).  A senior DDOT inspector visits the alley and directs the parents to apply for a construction permit for the fort to extend slightly into public air space over mulch.  The parents do as instructed right away, quickly securing the permit.  The DDOT city-wide permitting manager chooses the type and length of the authorization, which becomes permanent on Nov. 20th.  The parents are not real estate professionals and this is their first public space permit. 

December 2015-January 2016:  A dozen neighbors sign a tree house tear-down petition, addressed to Advisory Neighborhood Commission (ANC) 6B.  The ANC and a top City zoning commission, the DC Public Space Commitee (PSC), review a permit "renewal" application the parents did not submit for a "proposed tree house" that has stood for months.  The "renewal" is of a closed "balcony" construction permit under a Dept. of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (DCRA) code, clearly in a different category than a limited-duration "public space rental" permit, e.g. for a street festival or parking.  No law, rule, or DC official had advised that the original permit was temporary, or that City review of project plans was required, and nothing was put in writing by DDOT. 

A DDOT official goes into Ellen's permitting account to apply for the "renewal," unbeknown to her, and changes her password.  He memorializes the hacking in an email.  Later, in October 2017, the parents will lodge a complaint about the hacking with the FBI Internet Crimes Center.  Predictably, the PSC denies the "renewal application," the agency's crude attempt to take an administrative shortcut to revoking a closed permit after a small group of neighbors had complained about the tree house. No permit revocation documents are served.  At heated public hearings, permitting officials dodge Bing's questions as to why the original permit is not being respected.

February 2016-November 2017:  The parents appeal the permit application "renewal" denial at the Office of Administrative Hearings (OAH) and then the DC Court of Appeals.  DDOT ignores Bing's various requests for clarification of the status of the original permit, which the agency now refuses to recognize.  DDOT fines the parents $8,000 for not "abating" the tree house from public space, with half a dozen Notices of Violation served in the wrong homeowner's name, to a "Mr. Lee" vs. a "Mr. Yee" (because all East Asian immigrants must be, er, "Lees," like Bruce Lee).  The notices are served via certified mail, meaning that US Post Office staff will not release them to Bing.  He's unaware that he's being fined for a year after DDOT improperly serves him the first fine.

November 2017-January 2018:  DDOT rejects court mediation at OAH, even though the lead judge has already lined up a mediator.  The agency withdraws the notices of violation/fines. The Office of the Attorney General of DC (OAG) begins representing DDOT.  After more than two years of being on the receiving end of abusive administrative errors and permitting shenanigans, threatening a homeowner's right to due process, Bing, a lawyer with the U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security (but not a litigator), and Ellen sue DDOT.  The parents represent themselves in the first complaint they file in any court of law.  The case is brought under the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), and other causes of action.  The parents sue pro se right before the statute of limitations on various causes of action is to expire, with the goal of simply keeping the tree house while their girls are young.  See Castle Paper Trail to read the complaint.

February 2018:  DDOT/OAG argues that the parents' lawsuit is "not ripe" in US District Court, illogically, after having asserted that the case "is moot" at OAH.  The Court of Appeals dismisses DC's motion to throw out the appeal and refers the case to mediation.  City lawyers now insist that there was never a "permit renewal" process.  They claim that the parents had actually applied for a 2nd permit, a (mythical but mandatory) "public space occupancy permit for balcony construction," denied by the PSC. 

March-April 2018:  DDOT/OAG files a motion get the Federal case dismissed.  Mediation fails at the DC Court of Appeals.  The Federal case is assigned to Amy Berman Jackson, the US District Court judge who's hearing the DC Manafort case in the Mueller probe.  Within the coming months, Judge Berman Jackson, appointed by President Obama, will rule if the tree house lawsuit survives in whole or in part.  

September 27th, 2018:  The DC Court of Appeals hears oral arguments regarding vacating a 2015 DDOT Stop-Work-Order.  One judge on the 3-judge panel declares that the order was likely illegal, as it overreached in directing the parents to remove the tree house.  The panel moots the apellate case.  The Federal case, however, continues.  

October 2018+:  By now, SEVEN SENIOR CITY ATTORNEYS have authored tree house briefsThe lawyers include a Deputy AG and the DC Solicitor General.  Although the District's legal team has been unable to bring about the tree house's "abatement from public space," DDOT won't settle the case by simply ignoring the structure.  The wasteful campaign to  wreck a kids fort built for $1,500 has already cost DC taxpayers SIX FIGURES IN STAFF TIME.  Meanwhile, the Yee girls are growing up fast, as kids do, nearing the day when they will no longer play in their fort.  DDOT digs in on a trifling zoning matter to warn other homeowners not to challenge permitting wrongdoing, the stuff of political farce.  Kids age out of play forts, then families take them down, irregardless of the public resources thrown at trying to destroy a particular one. 

The parents have stayed in litigation to protest how they did their level best to obey the law, but DDOT moved the goal posts on them due to internal dysfunction.  An arbitrary ANC project screening system also set the stage for litigation.  ANC 6B had no business informing homeowners that they were required to submit to City review to defend a closed permit.  DC Code 1-309.10(a), spelling out ANC powers, states that the commissions “may advise…with respect to all proposed matters of DC government policy…” Completed projects authorized by permits cannot be described as "proposed matters."  If an ANC has an issue with a construction project covered by a permit that hasn't been lawfully revoked, the commissioners' quarrel is with the issuing agency. 

The City's permitting games to try to demolish a child's fort off a back alley have been enabled by a failed regulatory process in a jurisdiction supporting the District's byzantine construction permitting scheme.  DC's poorly explained and highly discretionary system for issuing (and withdrawing) homeowners' building authorizations sets up a DC citizen to have real difficulty defending rights under permits covering small construction projects.  These include sheds, fences and play forts.

This site not only considers the evolution of a knock-down local fight over a tree house, it proposes measures the DC government could take to prevent history from repeating itself when a young family sets out to build a backyard play space.  See Castle Paper Trail, Proposed Tree House Rules.  The conflict hasn't been as much about a child's fort as lack of accountability to the public on the part of the permitting agencies.  The story also encapsulates a fast-changing urban community's struggle to balance the needs and interests of the old guard with those of the droves of young families putting down roots in neighborhoods.  What else could explain why a kids fort a stone's throw from the Capitol Dome has attracted media attention?  The WaPo has run four articles on the story, which also aired on local TV stations--NBC-4,CBS-7, ABC-9 and Fox-5--in early 2016. NBC affiliates broadcast footage of the tree house from coast to coast.  See Castle in the Media for a long and entertaining annotated list of local and national tree house media links. 

Community Events at the Capitol Hill Tree House



In recent years, young families have stopped by the tree house after the local Independence Day celebration, the Capitol Hill Community Parade on 8th Street, two blocks away.  In January 2016, Slate Magazine's Nora Caplan-Bricker called the tree house "a monument to freedom."  Each July 4th since, fast-changing neighborhood demographics have been on vivid display in the alley, as local people with children and grandchildren have celebrated the fort's survival.  The open houses draw 75-100 kids, giving them a chance to explore in the elm at these low-key celebrations.  Consider the irony of how the ANC 6B commissioner for the property (who leaves office shortly) proclaimed to the media that the parents had dedicated public space for exclusively private purposes...with no benefit whatsoever to the public at large."  

The Independence Day open houses have been a great deal of fun for young families in the communty. Hill teens serve as monitors in the elm, helping keep young visitors safe.  A rope-and-pulley controlled bird feeder system lets kids fill several feeders from the alley.  Visiting children have fun playing Crusaders on the Walk in knights helmets.  Inside the fort, visitors bang a gong, ring farm bells, peer through a toy telescope, blow bubbles, have tea parties, try out the climbing rocks on the tree trunk, raise a supplies bucket and draw on a chalkboard. Tree house frequent fliers mix with first-time visitors, from babies to grandparents.  A few of the neighbors who once opposed the tree house join in.  Each Independence Day that the play castle survives to see another community event feels like a victory over run-of-the-mill permitting abuses in DC. 

The nerf arrows archery range on the south arm of the Walk is a draw at open houses.  Arrows fired on the range are trapped by the 15-foot-high walls of the historic Walker Dairy warehouse and red brick carriage house on either side.  A new generation of Hill residents appreciates a little-visited walkway (historically, "Marks Alley"), making happy memories of participating in July 4th celebrations by the fort.

Thank you, Capitol Hill, for reminding us of why we strive to preserve a unique urban play space.  If you attended an open house with your family, we hope that you and your children, or grandkids, had a good time and that we can welcome you back in 2019. 

Game of Capture-the-Castle for Neighborhood Children, June, 2018.  Hill children have grown attached to the whimsical tree house at open houses, play dates, birthday parties and birdwatching events.  See Costume Events.  We're concerned that, if this tree house is demolished prematurely, it will be the last built in a DC Historic District for a generation.  The historic preservationists who came at the small structure would do well to explain how backyard play spaces pose a threat to ongoing architectural restoration efforts.  Which old building is threatened by a child's fort?  We believe that the DC community can balance safety, heritage, public space and the need to promote outdoor play for children.  When City leaders help make the DC Historic Districts child-friendly zones, they encourage the many young families making their lives in them to thoughtfully invest in their classic properties.  On result is that young families become motivated to help the District maintain public alleys providing access to play spaces.    


The fall community open house was a wonderful time on a cold but sunny November afternoon.  Neighborhood kids converged on the Walk, with (foam) sword fighting emerging as the most popular activity.  More than 60 people rocked in to chat over pie and hot cider.  A hard-working teen tree house monitor kept good order up in the elm, giving the grown-ups below a chance to relax.  Alley visitors enjoyed filling the play fort's inventive pulley-and-rope-controlled bird feeders and bird bath.  See Photo Gallery.


What luck!  Seventy well-behaved knights from Mr. Tony's popular adventure camp, for ages 3-8, defended the castle in August.  They had help from a dozen stellar camp counselors.  The decade-old camp is a popular program for local children, serving hundreds each summer. The adventure campers honed their archery skills on the Walk and made pine cone bird feeders to take home.  We really enjoyed hosting the adventurers on their epic visit.  Come again! See Photo Gallery for more pictures.

Digging Deeper into the Tree House Controversy

So why would alley neighbors, DDOT permitting officials, and a team of City attorneys strive to get a 30 SQF play fort off a back alley torn down?

In the summer of 2015, Ellen and Bing worked with friends and relatives to build a tree house off the narrow "U"-shaped back alley.  The solid open fort, which encorporates elaborate safety and security features, was constructed in their SE property's back yard.  The tree house, painted blue and gray to match the house, stands off F St. Terrace, the alley behind Christ Church on G Street. 

The tree house was built in an environmentally-friendly manner.  The family hired a DDOT Urban Forestry Division-recommended private arborist, to advise them on the care of their century-old American elm.  Elms are relatively rare in DC, because more than 80% of them succumbed to Dutch Elm Disease decades ago.  The tree is thriving.  In fact, the host elm is in far better circulatory health than it was in 2015. 

Over the winter of 2015-2016, the ANC 6B-03 commissioner got retroactive review of the family's construction permit on the agenda of the January 2016 meeting of the Public Space Committee, a city-wide zoning commission.  The Committee voted 4-0, with an abstention by DCRA-Construction, to overrule the issuance of the permit, portending the tree house's immediate destruction.  However, the PSC lacks the authority to review closed permits, so the Committee was not within its rights to vote at all.  The Mayor's Order establishing the PSC didn't grant the body the power to overule permits.  The parents were unaware of ANC and PSC overreach at the time (having been told that post hoc review was mandatory) but have since researched the relevant legal issues.

At the PSC hearing in January 2016, the Chair strong-armed committee members to vote to tear down the play fort, insisting that the parents should have gone through a (non-existent) process for permitting DC tree houses.  But the window DDOT had to require the tree house builders to submit to City review was the time before they were issued a construction permit, versus after the permit had closed.  Find the PSC's unfathomable letter announcing the Committee's decision under Castle Paper Trail header.  

The parents are making good progress in litigation.  After the PSC vote, they considered inching the fort's overhang over their western land boundary to save it.  By the summer of 2016, six months later, they'd reached the conclusion that the relocation project would be too hard on the old elm, and that the shifted fort would be destabilized.  Moreover, Ellen and Bing had their eyes opened to post hoc City review of the tree house project plans as a cynical effort to fool and pressure them to alter or destroy a legal structure authorized by a pre-existing construction permit.  They prefer to stay in litigation than to acquiesce to DDOT's computer hacking-based permit revocation scheme.  

The authors of the tear-down petition, which some of the immediate neighbors refused to sign, argued that because the tree house clashes with its surroundings architecturally, it should be demolished.  The objecting neighbors asserted that the "castle-theme...is incompatible with the rest of the neighborhood and therefore antithetical to the historic nature and existing streetscape."  In supporting documents, made public by ANC 6B, neighbors expressed concern that the fort would attract vagrants, prove unsafe, depress property values, irreparably damage the tree (which Bing and Ellen own), fall into disrepair and hurt alley tourism.  They also complained that the small structure would compromise their privacy.  But none of this has happened, helping explain why the campaign to destroy the tree house petered out by late 2016.  

The backlash against what Slate Magazine's Norah Caplan-Bricker dubbed "DC Treehouse-gate" in 2016 suggests that the public at large has not been swayed by the argument that a small tree house off a Capitol Hill back alley should be destroyed.  Local supporters have come forward to help the family in various ways.  The American elm has been pruned by a professional tree care company without charge, and donations have been made.  Supporters have included kids offering allowance money and realtors who like showing the tree house to clients with young children.  

In the fall of 2015, when a DDOT inspector visited Archibald Walk, he stumbled across dozens of large potted plants and trees residents had been keeping in the alley for many years.  The agency cited the plant owners, due to safety concerns stemming from big, wobbly potters standing mid-alley.  It was a development for which the plant owners blamed the tree house builders.  One plant owner responded to the loss of the forest, which the neighbors did not appeal, by collecting signatures on a tear-down petition.  The neighbors' spokesman explained the group's decision to the WaPo, saying that the tree house "encroaches on" and "overwhelms" the public space."  Strangely, none of the neighbors who pushed for the fort's destruction has a view of the castle-styled facade from their lot.  

Creating a Process for Permitting Tree Houses in the DC Historic Districts

The parents would not only like to preserve the tree house until their girls have lost interest in playing in it, they would like to see clear tree house rules enacted in the District.  To this end, in mid 2016, they petitioned the directors of DCRA, DDOT, and the Historic Preservation Office for rule-making related to tree house construction.  Read their petition, which the agencies ignored, here.  The rescue operation has been an opportunity to raise awareness that there is no niche for tree houses in the DCMR.  The City considers tree houses to be either non-permitted "playground equipment" or "accessory sheds," overly broad categorizations creating permitting confusion and promoting conflict in communities over structures going up in trees. 

Ellen and Bing's committment to preserving the banged-up historic alley their fort overlooks has been made clear since 2011, when they lobbied DDOT to repave its badly degraded surface.  The paving project, the first in decades, improved alley conditions, particularly drainage.  The Walk was occupied by a large swarm of insects in warm weather before repaving.  The family's contribution to keeping up the neglected alley, which they often sweep, is apparent to long-time visitors. 

Without specific rules related to play fort or tree house-building in DC, unlike in many other US cities, the door is left open to permitting adhocery.  Permitting officials took the position that the fort's design broke none of the street box/tree space rules for owners of adjoining lots, spelled out in DCMR Rule 24-109.3.  The permit references "the property owner's street box."  In 2017, the rule was amended to read that a "structure" cannot overhang a tree space, surely as a reaction to the tree house war.  With the amended rule on the books, the DC Code has been appropriately updated, meaning that no homeowner could ever build another tree house like this one.  Thus, no dangerous precedent for tree house-building in the District would be set by the City opting to leave the fort alone.  

The Tree House Case in Court (Making Progress)

Ellen and Bing have gone to court to defend rights granted by a permit DDOT came to regret issuing, after neighbors complained about a kids fort.  Agency oficials opted to harness a bogus retroactive "review" of the authorization to tear it up. This type of casual permitting malfeasance, targetting homeowners who built small projects, is seldom challenged in DC. 

DDOT's "review" was government gone awry: the PSC Chair declared the tree house illegal to the WaPo in advance of the specious hearing, without even the pretense of impartiality.  Afterward, media attention brought the family advice from Hill real estate professionals wise to City permitting games.  Architects and contractors reached out to the parents, urging them to challenge DDOT's bad faith in court, because, under the law, a permanent building permit like theirs is a closed chapter under DC law.   

Public Access to the Play Fort - DC Children Welcome:

The tree house has become a community resource.  Look for announcements of open houses on the Moms on the Hill (MOTH) and the Nextdoor.com Eastern Market area list servs. 

In addition to holding open houses, the family has developed the fort as a bird-watching platform for children. Occasionally, DC Boy and Girl Scout groups visit, to enable young naturalists to work on scout birding merit badges.  Youth group, school group, and day camp leaders can send requests for small groups of children to visit the tree house.  See Birding Activities for details.  

The Tree House on Capitol Hill Neighborhood Tours:

Come find the tree house!  The unique play fort has become something of a Hill landmark since the early 2016 media blitz - news coverage has attracted GPS-guided tourists.  Ellen and Bing first opened the tree house to the public on Mother's Day Weekend 2016, during the Capitol Hill Restoration Society House & Garden Tour.  The family invited tour-goers to explore the fort, prompting several hundred CHRS event ticket holders to stop off at their SE patio.  The local show of support for the tree house buoyed the parents in their appeals, helping persuade them to stay the course. 

The guided Capitol Hill Food Tour, and the "Barrack's Row Tour of Duty" walk, bring tourists by almost every day.  The authors of the tear-down petition argued that the struture "impairs the public use and enjoyment of this space...and the enjoyment of neighborhood tours which transit Archibald Walk and F Street Terrace" with the fort "disrupting the integrity and visual beauty of the alleyway."  Their view has not been universally shared.  If you talk to local tour guides, they'll tell you that visitors sometimes ask to be shown the charming tree house they saw on TV news.  Tourists snap pictures and shout out encouragement to kids to "Defend the castle!"  

Having trouble finding the tree house?  Try searching for Eastern Market on Google Maps, where a photo of "Tree House of Contention" may pop up at the bottom of your screen.  Plug in "East 516 Archibald Walk SE" into your GPS (vs. simply "Archibald Walk") to be directed to an alley entrance off F Street Terrace, the main alley, paved in gray asphalt pavers, running north to south between E & G Streets. 

Contact Friends of the Capitol Hill Tree House:

Going forward, the construction of tree houses should be regulated in the District, but in a way that encourages families to build them responsibly to promote outdoor play.  In a society where most urban youth spend too much time inside, the City should not be in the business of encouraging sedentary lifestyles for local children by making backyard kids forts difficult to build, and even harder to preserve.  

Discouraging homeowners in the DC Historic Districts from building tree houses is short-sighted in a city with many large trees in residential neighborhoods.  The unlawful revocation of building permits by the government is another losing strategy in a municipality that has struggled to rein in abuse of authority and dysfunction on the part of its administrative agencies, dampening statehood prospects. 

Homeowners in the District have a right to know exactly what they are, and aren't, allowed to build, no matter how large or small a construction project might be.   

To urban tree houses as places of joy and discovery!

Friends of the CH Tree House

Photos courtesy of julieannwoodford.photoshelter.com and Ellen Psychas of rescuetreehouse@gmail.com

Thanks for stopping by.  Capitol Hill visitors and residents who haven't seen the tree house, please come find it and draw your own conclusions.